• Adapt the Bohr model for hydrogen to many-electron atoms.
  • Identify periodic trends in ionization energy and atomic size. Explain these in terms of the men-in-well model.
  • Recognize that the adjective valence describes the electrons that are most readily lost during successive ionizations. Identify the number of valence electrons in atoms of the “representative elements”.
  • Recognize that at normal temperatures and pressures, for non-metals, the maximum number of valence electrons per atom is eight (with the exception of two for H and He).
  • Use the men-in-well model and the difference in attraction of valence electrons by the nuclei of metal and non-metal atoms to explain the formation of binary ionic compounds.
  • Show that the men-in-well model is not adequate to represent the formation of a covalent bond between non-metal atoms.
  • Compare strengths and weakness of various ways (molecular, line, structural) to represent covalent molecules.
  • Use Lewis diagrams to represent the sharing of valence electrons to form covalent bonds in compounds.




Locating Electrons by Successive Ionization Energy 

Periodic Trends

Men in Wells Model

Ion Formation

How to Draw Lewis Structures

Alkali Metals React with Water

Alkali Metals

Alkaline Earth Metals

Transition Metals


Rare Earth Metals


Noble Gases

Most Dangerous Elements

Periodic Trends

Ionic Radius Trends

Periodic Videos

Animated Element Song

Crash Course: Polar vs. NonPolar

VSEPR Theory Intro

VSEPR Theory Practice Problems

VSEPR Theory Common Mistakes


PhET: Molecule Polarity


Website: Periodic Videos (for each element)

The Many Looks of the Periodic Table

Discovery of the 1st Element


Group 1 – Alkali Metals

Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals

Transition Metals

Group 3 – Icosagens Group 4 – Crystallogens Group 5 – Pnictogens Group 6 – Chalcogens Group 7 – Halogens Group 8 – Noble Gases Lanthanides Actinides


The Periodic Table Song